Bladder problems affect a large number of men and women. Bladder problems also become more common with age. Symptoms can be divided in storage symptoms or voiding symptoms.
Storage symptoms include wanting to pass urine too often (frequency) or with little or no warning (urgency). Passing urine at night is also common (nocturia).
Voiding symptoms include difficulty initiating the flow (hesitancy), a weak flow, an interrupted or stop/start flow, a sense of incomplete emptying and post-void dribbling. Passing urine may also be painful (dysuria).
Urinary incontinence, or leakage, is also an issue for many. This can be divided into leakage caused by straining (stress incontinence) or leakage caused by an involuntary overwhelming urge to pass urine (urge incontinence).
Blood in the urine (haematuria) is not normal, and should always be investigated to exclude a serious underlying problem.
Bladder stones can build up in the bladder, if urine is chronically retained.
Bladder infection, or urinary tract infection (UTI, cystitis) can cause pain, bleeding, storage symptoms and even fever, chills and shakes.
Bladder cancer is rare but extremely serious. It often presents with painless blood in the urine. It affects men more than women.
Chronic bladder pain is uncommon but can be debilitating for some. Causes of the above conditions are multiple and diagnosis may depend on detailed questions, examination and subsequent tests and investigations.
Treatment will be based around the results and diagnosis. Sometimes this will be as simple as altering what fluids you drink and when!